The Beaumonts and Clares
In previous articles in WP I have written about some of the medieval baronial ancestors of the immigrant, Peter Worden I. Here I consider two families, the Beaumonts and the Clares, both of whom had a number of earls and other notables. The families are interesting because of a number of intermarriages, of distant (and sometimes not so distant) cousins. As a result, Peter Worden I is descended from the earliest members of these families in several ways. These individuals are also illustrative of the shifting conflicts and alliances of the barons with the crown. The early ancestors here all came from Normandy. I begin with the descents to Peter, and then briefly discuss some of the most prominent of these individuals.
1A Humphrey de Vielles, d. aft. 1040 = Albreda la Haye (5 descents to Peter Worden I)
2A Roger de Beaumont d. 1094 = Ailene de Meulan, dau. of Waleran III, Count of Meulan
3A Robert I de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester d. 1118 = (2nd) Isabel (Elizabeth) de Vermandois, dau. of Duke Hugh de Vermandois and Adelaide de Vermandois, had 4A and 4B
4A Isabel de Beaumont = Earl Gilbert de Clare, d. 1148, 1st Earl of Pembroke
5A Earl Richard de Clare (“Strongbow”), 2nd Earl of Pembroke, d. 20 April 1176 = Eve MacMurrough
6A Isabel de Clare = Sir William Marshal, d. 14 May 1219, 1st Earl of Pembroke of the second creation, Lord Marshal of England
7A Isabel Marshal = Sir Gilbert de Clare, d. 25 October 1230, 5th Earl of Gloucester, 4th Earl of Hertford (3rd cousins twice over, common ancestors: Gilbert de Clare and Adelize de Clermont; Earl Robert I de Beaumont and Isabel de Vermandois)
8A Earl Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, 6th Earl of Gloucester, b. 1222, d. 14 July 1262 = Maud de Lacy, dau. of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln and Margaret de Quincy (8C below), 3rd cousins once removed (common ancestors: Robert II de Beaumont and Amice de Gael)
9A Rose de Clare = Roger de Mowbray, 1st Baron Mowbray, d. 21 November 1297, 2nd cousins once removed (common ancestor: Maud de Saint Hilary)
10A John de Mowbray, 2nd Baron Mowbray, b. 1286, d. 23 March 1322 = Aline de Braose, see below for some of her ancestry
11A Christiana de Mowbray = Sir William Plumpton, d. 1362
12A Alice Plumpton = Sir Richard Sherburne, d. 1369/70
13A Margaret de Sherburne = Richard de Bayley, d. bef. 1388/9
14A Richard Sherburne, d.1441 = Agnes Harington d.1444
15A Richard Sherburne, d. 1441 = Alice Hamerton
16A Agnes Sherburne = Henry Rishton, d. bef. 1490
17A Nicholas Rishton, d.1508 = Margaret Radcliffe, d.1528
18A Agnes Rishton = Richard Worthington, d.1526
19A Peter Worthington, d.1577 = Isabel Anderton, d.1573
20A Isabel Worthington = Robert Worden, d.1580
21A Peter Worden I, d.1638/9 = Margaret Grice
4B Earl Robert II de Beaumont, d. 5 April 1168, 2nd Earl of Leicester, Justiciar of England = Amice de Gael had 5B, 5C, and 5D
5B Hawise de Beaumont = William fitz Robert, d. 1183
6B Amice fitz William (Amice of Gloucester) = Earl Richard de Clare, d, 1217 (6E below) had 7B and Gilbert de Clare 7A above and 7E below
7B Maud de Clare = William de Braose, d 1210, starved to death by King John, son of William de Braose and Maud de St. Valery
8B John de Braose, d. 18 July 1232 = Margaret Ferch Llywelyn
9B Sir William de Braose, d. 1291 = Aline de Multon
10B William de Braose, d. 1326
11B Aline de Braose = John Mowbray, d. 1322 (10A above) 3rd cousins, once removed (Richard de Clare and Amice fitz William, common ancestors)
as above from 11A
5C Sir Robert de Beaumont III, d. 1190 = Petronilla de Grandmesnil
6C Margaret de Beaumont = Earl Saher de Quincy, d. 1219, 1st Earl of Winchester
7C Robert de Quincy, d. 1217 = Hawise of Chester, 1st countess of Lincoln
8C Margaret de Quincy = Earl John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln, d. 22 July 1240, son of Roger de Lacy
9C Maud de Lacy = Earl Richard de Clare, (8A above), 3rd cousins once removed (Robert Beaumont II and Amice de Gael, common ancestors)
as above from 9A
5D Margaret de Beaumont = Ralph V de Tony (Tosny), d. 1162
6D Ida de Tosny mistress of King Henry II, d. 6 July 1189 (17 descents from Charlemagne)
7D Earl William Longespee (illegitimate), d. 7 March 1225/6 = Ela of Salisbury
8D Ida Longespee = William de Beauchamp, d. after 28 December 1260
9D Maud de Beauchamp = Lord Roger de Mowbray, d. before 18 October 1263
10D Roger de Mowbray = Rose de Clare (9A above) 2nd cousins once removed (Maud de St. Hilary common ancestor)
as above from 10A
1E Gilbert Crispin, Count of Brionne (4 descents to Peter Worden I)
2E Richard fitz Gilbert of Clare, d. abt. 1090 = Rohese Giffard, dau. of Sir Walter Giffard
3E Gilbert fitz Richard, d. abt 1117 = Adeliza de Clermont, had 4E, 4F, and 4G
4E Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare, d. 15 April 1136 = Alice de Gernon (Adelize de Meschin)
5E Roger de Clare, d. 1173 = Maud de St. Hilary
6E Richard de Clare, d. 1217, 3rd Earl of Hertford, 4th Earl of Gloucester = Amice Fitz William (Amice of Gloucester) dau. of William fitz Robert and Hawise de Beaumont (5B above) 4th cousins once removed (common ancestor: Herleve, mother of William the Conqueror)
7E Gilbert de Clare, d. 25 October 1230, 4th Earl of Hertford, 5th Earl of Gloucester, Magna Carta surety = Isabel Marshal (7A above) 3rd cousins, see above
as above from 8A
4F Gilbert de Clare, d. 6 January 1148, Earl of Pembroke = Isabel de Beaumont (4 A above) (4th cousins once removed, Hugh Capet common ancestor)
as above from 5A
4G Alice de Clare = Aubrey de Vere, d. 15 May 1141
5G Rohesia de Vere = Payn de Beauchamp, d. before 1157
6G Simon de Beauchamp, d. 1207 = Isabel
7G William de Beauchamp, d. aft 28 December 1260 = Ida Longespee (8D above) (7th cousins, Duke Richard I, common ancestor)
as above from 9D
Notes on some of the preceding:
Robert de Beaumont (3A) accompanied William the Conqueror, leading part of the infantry at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. His wife, Isabel (or Elizabeth, these first names were often interchangeable in those days) de Vermandois (8 descents from Charlemagne) was daughter of Hugh Magnus, count of Vermandois and Adelaide de Vermandois. Hugh was the son of King Henry I of France and Anna of Kiev. Robert’s daughter Isabel was a mistress to King Henry I and was married to Earl Gilbert de Clare.
King Henry I, the fourth son of William the Conqueror, died in 1135. His only surviving legitimate child was Matilda (Maud) who was married first to the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V, and secondly to Geoffrey V, the count of Anjou. Because of her first marriage, Matilda was called “Empress.” After his death, Geoffrey was nicknamed “Plantagenet” and Matilda and Geoffrey’s descendants, including several kings of England, are known as Plantagenets. Although Matilda should have become queen of England, the throne was assumed by her cousin, Stephen, resulting in a protracted conflict between Matilda (aided by Geoffrey) and Stephen. Gilbert de Clare (4A) at first supported Stephen, leading an expedition to Normandy which ended badly. He was subsequently created Earl of Pembroke by King Stephen. Gilbert vacillated between Matilda and Stephen, depending on who seemed to have the upper hand, in the end adhering to Stephen. Stephen died in 1154 and Matilda’s son became King Henry II.
Earl Robert II de Beaumont (4B) 2nd Earl of Leicester, twin brother to Waleran. Both were apparently quite learned. Robert inherited lands in England while Waleran took over his father’s land in Normandy. With his marriage to Amice de Gael, Robert came into lands in Brittany. Both brothers were in the court of King Henry I, although Waleran rebelled in 1123 and was imprisoned until 1129, when he was taken back into court. Both brothers supported Stephen and Robert’s Norman lands were confiscated by Empress Matilda (her husband Geoffrey controlled Normandy). These lands were restored to Robert by Matilda’s son Henry before he became king. When Henry became king he made Robert chief justiciar of England, a powerful position involving supervision of administration of the realm and of legal proceedings.
Earl Richard de Clare (5A) inherited the title of Earl of Pembroke from his father (Pembrokeshire is the county at the western end of Wales) but lost it because he sided with King Stephen against Empress Matilda. Subsequently he made up with King Henry II and spent time in Ireland assisting the deposed king of Leinster, Diarmait MacMurrough in regaining his crown (Leinster was the eastern part of Ireland). MacMurrough gave his daughter, Eve, to Richard in marriage and promised the kingdom to him on his death. MacMurrough’s son also claimed the crown of Leinster but Henry II granted the lordship of Leinster to Richard. Later Richard assisted Henry II in putting down the rebellion of Henry’s sons in Normandy. Richard was also known as the Lord of Striguil. Both he and his father were nicknamed “Strongbow” because of their skill with the longbow. Henry II gave Richard’s daughter Isabel in marriage to Sir William Marshal. When her brother Gilbert died in 1185, Isabel became the 4th Countess of Pembroke and her husband became Earl of Pembroke.
Earl William Marshal (6A) was 1st Earl of Pembroke of the 2nd creation and hereditary Marshal of England. The office of Marshal was responsible for the king’s horses and for protection of the royal household. It was established as a hereditary office by William’s father, John FitzGilbert, marshal to King Henry I. John FitzGilbert initially supported King Stephen and then switched to Matilda. In 1152, Stephen took William hostage to get John to surrender Newbury castle. Stephen threatened to hang William and John is reputed to have replied "I still have the hammer and the anvil with which to forge still more and better sons!" Stephen backed down from his threat. William was brought up in Normandy where he learned to be a knight, excelling in jousting. He joined the court of King Henry II in 1185 and served four kings as marshal, Henry II, Richard I, John, and Henry III.
A number of the above were Magna Carta sureties, that is they were supposed to guarantee the agreement between King John and the barons. They include Sir Richard de Clare (6E), Sir Gilbert de Clare (7E), Sir Saher de Quincy (6C), and Sir John de Lacy (8C). I have previously written in WP about the Magna Carta surety ancestors of Peter Worden I (August 2006, v. 27, no. 2). The following repeats some of the material from that article but adds additional items.
Earl John de Lacy (8C) was the 2nd Earl of Lincoln of the 4th creation. He was the hereditary constable of Chester. As a Magna Carta surety he was excommunicated by the Pope, but later reinstated. In the reign of Henry III (son and successor to King John), he went on crusade and served in the siege of Damietta in Egypt in 1218. He was made Earl of Lincoln in 1232.
Earl Saher (Saer) de Quincy (6C) 1st Earl of Winchester, was the son of Robert de Quincy who was a knight for King William the Lion of Scotland (also an ancestor of Peter Worden I). Saher was raised in Scotland but rose to influence in England through his marriage to Margaret de Beaumont. In 1203, with his cousin Robert Fitz Walter he commanded the fortress of Vaudreuil in Normandy but was forced to surrender it to King Philip II of France. This was a humiliation but it turns out that the surrender was ordered by King John. In 1211-12 he commanded a force for William the Lion’s fight against Scottish rebels. In 1215 he joined the baronial rebellion against King John and he and Fitz Walter were Magna Carta sureties. He went on crusade in 1219 and served at the siege of Damietta. He fell ill in the east and died, being buried at Acre, now in northern Israel.
Sir Richard de Clare (6E), 3rd Earl of Hertford and by right of his wife (jure uxoris) 4th Earl of Gloucester. Married Amice Fitz William, 4th Countess of Gloucester, daughter of William Fitz Robert and Hawise de Beaumont (5B). Richard and Amice were ordered by the Pope to separate because of consanguinity but later were apparently reconciled by the Pope. Richard was present at the coronations of King Richard I, 3 September 1189, and King John, 27 May 1199. He was also at the homage of King William I of Scotland to King Henry II in 1175. He and his son Gilbert were Magna Carta Sureties and championed Prince Louis of France (later King Louis VIII) as a substitute for King John. With the assistance of the barons, Louis almost conquered England, but then king John died in 1216 and the barons abandoned Louis in favor of John’s son, Henry III.
Sir Gilbert de Clare (7E), 4th Earl of Hertford and 5th Earl of Gloucester, inherited vast lands. The conflict between the barons and the crown continued early in the reign of Henry III (who was a child when he became king) culminating in the battle of Lincoln in May 1217. The king’s forces were led by William Marshal who captured Gilbert and a number of other barons. Later, Gilbert became reconciled with the crown and married Marshal’s daughter, Isabel. He led expeditions to Wales and in 1230 to Brittany where he died in October of that year. He was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey to which he had given great support.
King Edward II (reigned 1307 to 1327) also had serious conflicts with the nobles. I discussed these conflicts in an article in WP in August 2005 (volume 26, number 2). One of Edward’s principal antagonists was his cousin Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. John de Mowbray (10A), took part in the rebellion of Thomas. In 1322 a decisive battle was fought between the forces of Thomas and those of Edward at Boroughbridge in North Yorkshire. John de Mowbray was captured in the battle and subsequently hanged at York.
Sources: Descriptions of the barons derive from Wikipedia and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB). The genealogies depend on Wikipedia, the ODNB and the following:
D. Crouch, The Beaumont Twins, 1986.
W. E. Wightmen, The Lacy Family in England and Normandy 1066-1194, 1966.
M. Altschul, A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares, 1217-1314, 1965.
Geneaologics.org an extensive genealogical website run by Leo van de Pas.
D. Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2005.
D. Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, 2004.
George E. Cokayne and others, Complete Peerage, 1910-1998, 14 volumes in 15.
The above descents depend on the parentage of Christina Mowbray, the wife of William Plumpton. Douglas Hickling has argued persuasively that John Mowbray was the father of Christiana Mowbray, (see http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk/sources/mowbray/index.shtml).